A major impediment to affordable housing is zoning. Most cities have little to no land zoned for multifamily, so developers often have to get a zoning change. This adds layers of bureaucracy and extra time with accompanying costs—about $250,000 to $300,000. As more NIMBYs oppose affordable housing Valleywide, rather than only in upscale areas, they’ve become more organized. They bully builders to back off before a project even gets started, or they threaten to take the issue to voters, which can result in cities pulling approval. If nothing is done to remove these barriers, it’s unlikely Phoenix will meet the demand for housing.